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佛教知识

出家的条件、程序和仪式是怎样的?

时间:2018-07-23 17:17:11   作者:消音   来源:   阅读:133   评论:0
内容摘要:中国佛教网讯一个人要加入僧团,成为正式的出家修行者,不仅要符合一定的条件,而且还要履行一整套严格的程序和仪式。出家条件主要有“十三难事”和“十六轻遮”。出家的条件佛教对于出家是有着严格规定的。一个人要出家,除了信奉佛教、真心愿意皈依佛门之外,一般来说还要符合以下条件:一、必须是一......

中国佛教网讯 一个人要加入僧团,成为正式的出家修行者,不仅要符合一定的条件,而且还要履行一整套严格的程序和仪式。出家条件主要有“十三难事”和“十六轻遮”。


  • 出家的条件

    佛教对于出家是有着严格规定的。一个人要出家,除了信奉佛教、真心愿意皈依佛门之外,一般来说还要符合以下条件:

    • 一、必须是一个自由人。为人子女的,要得到父母的同意;身有官职的要辞去官职;已结婚的,要解除婚姻关系等。总之,出家前要摆脱人的所有社会属性。

    • 二、要接受身体检查。一些患有疾病和身体有缺陷的人是不允许出家的。主要有:患有恶疾的人;“黄门”,就是被阉割的人,这样的人是佛教尤其忌讳的;男性或者女性性征不全的人,这样的人被佛教视为身体不净。

    • 三、没有犯过罪。尤其是犯过重罪的人是被禁止出家的。

    • 四、没有债务纠纷。


  • 出家的程序、仪式

    出家和受戒密不可分,出家就要受戒,一个人只有正式受过戒了才能获得真正的僧人资格。一般来说,汉传佛教的僧人一般要受三次戒:第一次是沙弥戒;第二次是比丘戒;第三次是菩萨戒。这三戒合称“三坛传戒”。

    第二次受比丘戒是成为一名正式僧人的根本戒律。也就是说,受了比丘戒.就有了正式的僧人资格。

    受比丘戒要满足一定的条件:首先,受戒者必须年满20岁,并且曾受过沙弥戒。其次,授戒仪式上必须有足够数量的主持和尚和证明人。

    汉传佛教一般要求“十师”,或者称“三师七证”。三师包括:授戒的主师、教授师和羯磨师(羯磨,指佛事中的表白、告知等事)。三师缺一不可。七证则是七位受过比丘戒的僧人在旁为证。 “三师七证”如果数量不够或者其中有一个人犯过戒律,授戒仪式就不能生效。

    最后,授比丘戒的仪式还要在特定的地点举行,这就是“戒坛”。

    比丘戒受戒仪式的程序大体如下:

    首先,寺院鸣钟,将僧众和受戒者集中到戒台殿,然后十师由戒坛南面下层东阶登坛,在坛顶自东向北绕佛像一周,依次就座。其他的僧人都在戒坛的中下两层依次坐下,而受戒者则站在坛下南边东阶上,面向西方。这时候,威仪教授师引导受戒人先向佛像行三遍跪拜礼,再一一礼拜十师及僧众,接着合掌跪在草垫上,念乞戒文:“大德一心念我某某,今请大德为和尚,愿大德为我做和尚。我依大德故,得受具足戒慈悲故。”接着,教授师下坛,向受戒人说明比丘必备的衣钵等六种物品的名称和样式。并询问:“今此衣钵是汝自己有否?”受戒者一一回答说:“有”。

    此后,教授师单独、隐秘地向受戒人查问“十三难事”和“十六轻遮”。“难事”是指不能受戒的恶事,“轻遮”是指身体具有某种缺陷,并不是做过恶事。对教授师的询问,受戒者要诚实地回答。这些“难事”和“轻遮”中,只要受戒者符合其中一条,就不允许受戒。如果考核全部通过,教授师将向僧众说明,这个受戒者是“遍净之身”。众僧同意后,受戒人进来,再次礼拜佛像、十师和众僧,然后登上坛顶,在羯磨师面前请戒。

    羯磨师在坛上当众再次查问受戒者是否犯有“难事”和“轻遮”。问完后,羯磨师开始做“四白羯磨”。这里的“白”是表白的意思,也就是羯磨师要向主戒的大德和其他僧众说明刚才询问的情况,请众僧表示是否同意。请示一共有四次,故称“四白羯磨”。最后一遍羯磨说完,众僧都不说话,就表示全体通过了。这时,羯磨师就宣布,此人可受具足戒。受戒完毕,十师和众僧依次下坛,比丘戒仪式结束。

     


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To join a monk and become a formal monk, one must not only meet certain conditions, but also fulfill aset of strict procedures and rites. There are mainly thirteen difficult situations and sixteen light barriers.
Condition of home
Buddhism is strictly regulated for the birth of a family. In addition to beieving in Buddhism and genuinely willing to convert to Buddhism, a person has to meet the following criteria:
First, it must be a free man. Those who are children must have the consent of their parents; if they are in office, they should resign from their posts; those who have already been married should terminate their marriage relationship. In short, before leaving home, we must get rid of all social attributes of human beings.
Two, take the physical examination. Some people with diseases and physical defects are not allowed to become monks. Mainly: people suffering from malady; "yellow door", is a castrated person, such people are especially taboo in Buddhism; men or women with incomplete sex, such people are considered to be unclean by Buddhism.
Three. No crime was committed. Especially those who have committed serious crimes are forbidden to become monks.
Four, there is no debt dispute.
The procedure, ritual
Monks and commandment are inextricably linked, and monks must be given orders. A person can only be truly monk qualified if he has been formally abstained. Generally speaking, Buddhist monks in the Han Dynasty usually receive three commandments: the first is the sand maid, the second is the Buddhist monk's precepts, and the third is the Bodhisattva Precepts. The three precepts are called "three altar precepts".
The second time is the basic commandment of an official monk. That is to say, being subjected to the monk's precepts, there is a formal monk qualification.
There must be certain conditions for the monk to be satisfied: first, the commandments must be 20 years old and have been given the Samu. Secondly, there must be enough number of presiding monks and references in the ceremony.
Han Buddhism generally requires "ten divisions" or "three divisions and seven certificates". The three divisions include: the commanding master, the professor and the karma division. Three divisions are indispensable. The seven syndrome is evidence of seven monks who have been picked up by the monks. "Seven certificates in three divisions" can not be effective if there is not enough quantity or one of them has committed a commandment.
Finally, the ceremony of giving the Bi Ji precepts should be held at specific locations, which is called "the precepts".
The procedures of the ritual of the precepts of the monks are as follows:
First, the monastery song Zhong, the monks and the recipient of the center to the temple, then the ten division from the Lower East of the East order from the south of the altar, the altar from the east to the north around the Buddha, one week in turn. Other monks sat down in the middle and lower two layers of the commandment, while the commanding men stood on the eastern side of the altar to the West. At this time, the Prof. Professor led the recipient to bow to the statue of the Buddha three times. Once again, ten divisions and monks, then kneel on the mat, and read the Beggars: "dad thought of me, now Dad was a monk, and dad would be a monk for me." I depend on Dade, so I have to be very compassionate. " Next, the professor taught the altar to explain the names and styles of the six items. And asked, "is this your own right now?" The subjects answered one by one and said, "yes".
After that, the professor inquired "Thirteen difficulties" and "Sixteen light shading" separately and secretly. "Difficult things" mean evil things that can not be punished. "Light cover" means that the body has some defects and is not doing evil things. To ask the professors, the accused should be honest. These "difficult" and "light cover", as long as the recipient is in line with one of them, it is not allowed to be taken in. If the assessment is passed, the professor will explain to the monks that this person is "all over the net". After the consent of the monks, the precepts came in, again Buddha, ten divisions and monks, then mounted the altar top, and asked to quit before the karma division.
On the altar, the karma division once again asked whether the accused was guilty of "difficult" and "light cover". After asking, karma began to do "four white karma". Here the "white" is the meaning of the expression, that is, the master of the karma to master the master and other monks to explain the situation just asked, please the monks to show whether they agree. There are four requests, so it is called "four white karma". At last, once the karma was finished, all the monks did not speak. At this point, the karma announced that the man could be given enough punishment. When the commandment was completed, the ten divisions and the monks went down to the altar in succession.


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